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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer originates in the cells of the breast, usually in the milk ducts or lobules. Women are often the most commonly affected, but can also occur in men. Breast cancer widely varies in its characteristics, including the types of cells included, growth rate, and its potential to spread to other parts of the body. 

Types of Breast Cancer: 

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Abnormal cells found in the lining of a breast duct but have not invaded surrounding tissues.

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can spread to other parts of the body.

Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Cancer begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and can spread to nearby tissues.

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, HER2-Positive, and Hormone Receptor-Positive: Subtypes based on the presence or absence of certain receptors that influence treatment options.

Risk Factors

Gender: While breast cancer can occur in men, it is more common in women. 

Age: The risk of breast cancer increases with age, and it is most frequently diagnosed in women aged 50 and older.

Family History and Genetics: Having close relatives (mother, sister, daughter) with a history of breast cancer may increase the risk. Certain gene mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are associated with a higher risk.

Hormonal Factors: Prolonged exposure to estrogen, whether through early onset of menstruation, late menopause, or hormone replacement therapy, may increase the risk.



The following is not an all-inclusive list of symptoms but may include: a lump in the breast or underarm; change in the size, shape or appearance of the breast; unexplained pain in the breast or nipple; skin changes such as redness, dimpling or puckering. 



Mammography: X-ray imaging of the breast to detect abnormalities. 

Biopsy: Removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to confirm the presence of cancer and determine its type and characteristics.



Surgery: Lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and a small margin of surrounding tissue) or mastectomy (removal of the entire breast) may be performed.

Radiation Therapy: High-energy rays target and destroy cancer cells after surgery.

Chemotherapy: Medications that kill or slow the growth of cancer cells.

Hormone Therapy: Targeting hormonal receptors to block the effects of estrogen or progesterone.

Targeted Therapy: Drugs targeting specific molecules involved in cancer growth, such as HER2.



It's not possible to completely prevent breast cancer, but, there are lifestyle choices and strategies to help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Please note these strategies and recommendations cannot guarantee complete prevention, and if you are concerned about your likelihood of developing breast cancer, to please consult with your healthcare provider for guidance based on your history and risk factors. Here are some strategies to help prevent breast cancer: maintain a healthy lifestyle, staying active, knowing your family's history, regular self and clinical breast exams, participating in regular mammography screenings. 

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