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Lymphoma begins in the lymphatic system, a part of the body's immune system. The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow; which produce and store cells that help fight infection. There are two main types lymphomas are typically categorized into: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). 

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL): Characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, large abnormal cells, in the lymph nodes.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL): A diverse group of lymphomas that do not have Reed-Sternberg cells.

Risk Factors

Age: Lymphomas can occur at any age, but certain types are more common in specific age groups.

Gender: Some subtypes may be more prevalent in males or females.

Immune System: Conditions that weaken the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressive medications, may increase the risk.

Infections: Certain infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Helicobacter pylori, are associated with an increased risk of specific lymphomas.

Family History: Having a close relative with lymphoma may slightly elevate the risk.



The symptoms for both Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma includes: painless swelling of lymph nodes that do not go away after a few weeks, persistent fatigue, fever above 103 degrees Farenheit for two or more days, or if the fever returns, drenching night sweats, shortness of breath, and unexplained weight loss. 



Diagnosis involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT scans), and a biopsy of an affected lymph node or organ to confirm the presence of lymphoma.



Treatment depends on the type, stage, and characteristics of the lymphoma. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Participation in clinical trials may be an option for some individuals, providing access to innovative treatments and contributing to research advancements.



There are currently no definitive ways to prevent lymphoma, but making lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of developing cancer such as, but not limited to, quitting or avoiding smoking, eating a healthy and balanced diet, limiting or quitting the consumption of alcohol, preventing or treating infections.

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